Socrates atomic theory

Atomism: Pre-Socratic Philosoph

Socrates was born and lived nearly his entire life in Athens. His father Sophroniscus was a stonemason and his mother, Phaenarete, was a midwife. As a youth, he showed an appetite for learning Watch the best videos and ask and answer questions in 225 topics and 28 chapters in Chemistry. Get smarter in Chemistry on Socratic When most of us hear the name Socrates, we think philosopher. For several reasons, he's rather famous. Plato's Theory of Innate Ideas 5:08 Leucippus' Atomic Theory & Mode Socrates. Socrates was a Greek philosopher who lived between 470-399 B.C. He turned Greek attention toward questions of ethics and virtue. Although Socrates was not a scientist, his way of questioning to find out answers laid a foundation for the way that science works today. Socrates spent much time in the Athens marketplace (the Agora) where. The philosophers who came before Socrates (coincidentally called The Pre-Socratics ;-)) spent more time thinking about the physical world than did Socrates, posing questions about what material the world might be made of (theories included water, fire and air), as well as how things could apparently change if change was impossible (an inquiry that led to the first iteration of atomic theory)

Lecture 8: Greek Thought: Socrates, Plato and Aristotl

Pre-Socratic philosophy, also known as early Greek philosophy, is ancient Greek philosophy before Socrates.Pre-Socratic philosophers were mostly interested in cosmology, the beginning and the substance of the universe, but the inquiries of these early philosophers spanned the workings of the natural world as well as human society, ethics, and religion The beliefs of Socrates, separate from those of Plato, are hard to define as little in the way of solid proof exists to separate the two. The vast majority of Plato's exchanges might be simply the thoughts of Socrates reinterpreted by Plato, and several researchers think Plato adapted the Socratic style to make Socrates and the other characters difficult to recognize Democritus (/ d ɪ ˈ m ɒ k r ɪ t ə s /; Greek: Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning chosen of the people; c. 460 - c. 370 BC) was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.. Democritus was born in Abdera, Thrace, around 460 BC, although there are disagreements about the exact year Who was the first to propose atomic theory? The ancient atomic theory was proposed in the 5th century bc by the Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus and was revived in the 1st century bc by the Roman philosopher and poet Lucretius. READ: Who killed Sisera? What are the 5 atomic models The atomic theory is mechanistic: it holds that all matter is composed of an infinite number of indivisible and indestructible atoms of various shapes moving about in an infinite void, in an..

Development of the Atmoic Theor

what is the democratus atomic theory He's called a pre-Socratic, even though actually he was a contemporary of Socrates. That gives you a sense of how important he's considered: Yeah, the pre-Socratics -- maybe stick 'em in somewhere in the first week of class. (Incidentally, there's a story that Democritus journeyed to Athens to meet. However, Democritus greatest contribution to modern science was arguably the atomic theory he elucidated. According to Democritus' atomic theory, the universe and all matter obey the following.. Socrates his commitment to philosophy, his rational method, and his Share Plato introduced the atomic theory in which ideal geometric forms serve as atoms, according to which atoms broke down mathematically into triangles, such that the form elements had the following shape: fire (tetrahedron), air (octahedron), water (icosahedron), earth (cube) Thales of Miletus (c. 620 B.C.E.—c. 546 B.C.E.) The ancient Greek philosopher Thales was born in Miletus in Greek Ionia. Aristotle, the major source for Thales's philosophy and science, identified Thales as the first person to investigate the basic principles, the question of the originating substances of matter and, therefore, as the founder of the school of natural philosophy

Earth, Air, Fire, and Water: Empedocles of Acragas - The

An important factor of Anaxagoras's theory is the action he claimed nous had upon the organization of the universe. This approach was popular with later philosophers such as Socrates (469-399 bce), Plato (428-348 bce), and Aristotle (384-322 bce), all of whom were highly concerned with ethical problems and how to live a good life The Athenian philosopher Plato (c.428-347 B.C.) is one of the most important figures of the Ancient Greek world and the entire history of Western thought. In his written dialogues he conveyed and.

Light theory in the 19th century and beyond. In the face of this compelling evidence, nineteenth-century scientists had to concede that light was a wave. This happened slowly, though, hampered by Newton's reputation and the legacy of his corpuscular theory.Yet, once it did take root, the idea of light as a wave paved the way for the nineteenth-century Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell to. Atomism The Atomists: Atomism was devised by Leucippus and his student Democritus. Democritus was born about 460 B.C., which makes him about 40 years younger than Anaxagoras, and about 10 years younger than Socrates. Atomism is the final, and most successful, attempt to rescue the reality of the physical world from the fatal effects of Eleatic logic by means of a pluralistic theory. Atomic theory traces itself back to the pre-Socratics when the philosopher Leucippus (d. 370 BCE) and his student Democritus (371 BCE) proposed that everything is composed of indestructible particles moving through empty space. These thinkers later became known as the Atomists. The Atomists claimed that atoms, given their movement is at the microscopic level, ar

He contributed greatly to mathematics, poetry, anthropology, biology, medicine, cosmology, physics and atomic theory. The Three Stars of the Famous Greek Philosophers' list: Socrates (470 - 399 B.C Democritus is famous for his atomic theory--that all things are made up of simple, indivisible parts. Socrates' assertion that the soul is indivisible probably borrows somewhat from Democritus' theory. Last, Socrates also borrows from the Pythagorean belief in reincarnation and the transmigration of souls Socrates: The Father of Ethics and Inquiry (The Greatest Greek Philosophers) Library Binding - August 1, 2015. Traces the life, trial, and legacy of the influential Greek philosopher, as well as the historical and social context that informed his ideas. He is best known for introducing the atomic theory into chemistry, and for his.

Philosophy 101 by Socrates: An Introduction to Philosophy

Story Behind the Picture: The Death of Socrates - Bilkent

ATOMIC THEORY PRACTICE QUIZ. Which of the following is the philosopher credited with coining the term atom? A: Socrates. B: Aristotle. C: Democritus. D: Plato. Which of the following philosophers supplanted the correct theory of matter with his own, stating that there are only four elements: earth, air, fire and water August 13, 2020 12:22 History of Particle Theory - 9in x 6in b3979-ch01 page 2 2 History of Particle Theory: Between Darwin and Shakespeare Figure 1: Feynman's blackboard. that there is a rational explanation to the physical world. Thus, various schools related to the topic (in Ionia, in Athens, in Magn At Meno 76c Socrates draws on an Empedoclean theory of 'effluences' to define color, but disparages the resulting definition as 'pompous'. At Theaetetus 152e Socrates includes Empedocles among the earlier thinkers who (mistakenly) held that all things are in the process of becoming When did Aristotle contribute to the atomic theory? Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal. How did Aristotle contribute to psychology? In Para Psyche, Aristotle's psychology proposed that the mind was the 'first entelechy,' or primary reason for the existence and functioning of the body. Interestingly, this human soul was. According to ancient reports, Democritus was born about 460 BCE (thus, he was a younger contemporary of Socrates) and was a citizen of Abdera, although some reports mention Miletus. As well as his associate or teacher Leucippus, Democritus is said to have known Anaxagoras, and to have been forty years younger than the latter (DK 68A1)

History and Anecdotes of Universe ,Philosophers: Socrates

Light theory in the 19th century and beyond. In the face of this compelling evidence, nineteenth-century scientists had to concede that light was a wave. This happened slowly, though, hampered by Newton's reputation and the legacy of his corpuscular theory.Yet, once it did take root, the idea of light as a wave paved the way for the nineteenth-century Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell to. By vindicating Socrates' questioning method in order to advance the truth, Aristotle will become the founder of scientific method that nurtured Scholasticism and the first medieval universities, Renaissance, Enlightenment, Industrial Revolution or Atomic/Space Age possible Epicurus, Atomic Theory and the Ethics of Hedonism. This opens in a new window. Leonard Peikoff introduces three major schools of philosophy that flourished in the several centuries after the death of Aristotle, focusing primarily on the Epicureans. Peikoff explains the Epicureans' metaphysics of atomism, their denial of free will and their. Lesson Summary. Using scientific reasoning and observation, the Pre-Socratic philosopher Leucippus developed the theory of atomism, which posited that the whole universe is made up of solid atoms. Socrates was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Pla... 460 BC - 370 BC. Discoveries. More. Democritus, 1st Atomic Theory

He is therefore sometimes also referred to as the father of science although this epithet is usually used in reference to Democritus, another prominent ancient Greek philosopher who formulated the atomic theory that states that all matter is composed of particles called atoms Empedocles himself tells us he was born in Acragas, on the island of Sicily, which was then part of Ancient Greece. Acragas was a magnificent city, culturally and financially rich. Empedocles' family was well-known and wealthy. His grandfather, whose name was also Empedocles, kept racehorses. His father, Meton, was an Olympic Champion

두피디아 포토커뮤니티

Mind-Body Dualis

Presocratic Philosophy. The Presocratics were 6 th and 5 th century BCE Greek thinkers who introduced a new way of inquiring into the world and the place of human beings in it. They were recognized in antiquity as the first philosophers and scientists of the Western tradition. This article is a general introduction to the most important. Atomic Theory [edit | edit source] Democritus was the first to conceive of atomic theory. Sometheories indicate that he may have learned the basics of this theory from his teacher, the Materialist Philosopher Leucippus, from the 5th century BC. Democritus wanted to broaden atomic theory to include explanations for all physical phenomena

scientist timeline | Timetoast timelines

Socrates - HISTOR

What did Plato contribute to the atomic theory? Plato (427 B.C.E) Plato introduced the atomic theory in which ideal geometric forms serve as atoms, according to which atoms broke down mathematically into triangles, such that the form elements had the following shape: fire (tetrahedron), air (octahedron), water (icosahedron), earth (cube) Democritus is a well-known pre-Socratic Greek philosopher - who came before Socrates. He is a very famous Greek philosopher due to the discovery of the atomic theory. The research he did on atoms makes him more likely a scientist than a philosopher. Therefore, he was given the title of father Continue reading Democritu He was the student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle. He was the founder of first ever university in Athens called Academy. He greatly contributed to the field of philosophy and provided the basis of psychology through his great ideas and theories. What did Aristotle contribute to the atomic theory In this lecture we introduce the Presocratics, discover why they deserve our attention, and investigate the difference between mythology and philosophy.For m.. Democritus' theory of atoms was correct in many respects, but was rejected by philosophers. However, it influenced the development of the atomic theory of Dalton . 2- Theory of perception . Democritus' theory of perception is closely related to the school of atomism. This philosopher pointed out that the images ( Eido Were actually layers of atoms

Chemistry topics and chapters Socrati

  1. ds. There were many fundamental ideas that formed the basis for their theory on the make up of the universe. One-hundred and forty years before Socrates there was a lesser-known scholar named Thales, and he was the Father of Philosophy
  2. Aristotle did not believe in the Atomic Theory. He believed that everything was made up of only 4 elements fire, water, air, and earth. This theory was proven incorrect as is evidenced by the.
  3. Science: The Atomic Theory. He also believed that there was an unlimited amount of atoms. His theory specifically included that all matter consists of invisible particles called atoms, atoms are indestructible, atoms are not solid but invisible, atoms are homogenous, and that atoms differ in size, shape, mass, position, and arrangement
  4. Early atomic theory stated that different materials had differently shaped atoms. Credit: github.com Since Socrates died at the hands of the Athenian government who condemned him, it is.
  5. Aristotle Brief Biography - Atomic Theory - Ancient History - Chemist. Aristotle is a Greek Scientist, today he is known as Father of Science. Let's read about his biography. Aristotle was born on Stagira, Greek, in 384 BC. His father and uncle was a herbalist, so young Aristotle was understood about herbs in medicine
  6. This view of essentialism also served as the basis for Aristotle's theories of chemistry and physics. Because of our modern atomic theory, we think of chemistry emerging out of physics, but for Aristotle, it was the other way around. Learn more about metaphysics and the nature of science. The Four Earthly Element

Aristotle, the philosopher of the rationality (city and individuals) Aristotle is one of the most famous Greek philosophers. Aristotle was a pupil of Plato and was first reverent to him then very critical, about Plato's theory of ideas for example. His own work lies mainly in. Physics Plato was so impressed with this discovery that he was convinced that atoms of matter must derive from these five fundamental solids. But at the time the Greek periodic table consisted only of earth, water, air and fire (i.e. four atomic types). Therefore, Plato postulated that a fifth atomic type must exist which Aristotle later called `ether' Aristotle is the earliest natural historian whose work has survived in some detail. He certainly did research on the natural history of Lesbos, and the surrounding seas and neighbouring areas.The works History of Animals, Generation of Animals and Parts of Animals have observations and interpretations, along with some myths and mistakes.. The most striking passages are about the sea-life round. Mar 4, 2020 - Explore tcequity tcequity's board Democritus on Pinterest. See more ideas about peace love and understanding, atomic theory, ancient greek philosophers Democritus was a renowned Ancient Greek philosopher who is respected by many modern scientists and scholars for formulating the most accurate early atomic theory of the universe. One of the best known pre-Socratic philosophers, he was influenced by Leucippus of Miletus and had proposed revolutionary ideas which were in conflict with those by.

The Concept of Reality Before Socrates - Video & Lesson

The two main sources for these views are the Categories and the central books of the Metaphysics, particularly book Zeta. In the early theory of the Categories the basic entities of the world are concrete objects such as Socrates: Aristotle calls them 'primary substances'. But the later theory awards this title to the forms of concrete objects 7 Greek philosophers beyond Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle. You've heard of the big Greek philosophers. Now, read about the ones who inspired them. Article by Big Think. 7. Simple Minds Socrates Alexander The Great Ancient Civilizations Ancient Greece Death Statue World Greek Analyze the role of Alexander the Great (Hellenistic Period), Socrates, Plato, Archimedes, Aristotle, and others in the transmission of Greek governance, literature, philosophy, Early Atomic Theory and the Structure of the Atom - Early Atomic Theory and the Structure of the Atom Chemistry Structure of an Atom Discovery 1 British science historian William Dampier argues that this aversion to atomic theory by Socrates, an aversion adopted by his students Plato and indirectly Aristotle, ultimately led to the eventual two-millennium long interment of atomic theory. [2] In short, the Platonic view, as has been summarized, rejected mechanical manifestations of.

Abstract. Athens after being defeated by Sparta in the Attic War is now under the despotic rule of the Thirty Tyrants. Socrates is on his way to see Theaetetus, the geometer, in search of news about his nephew Adeimantus and he meets Philodemos by chance in the Athenian agora who had that day heard Democritus and Leucippus both lecture on their atomic hypothesis In what ways were their theories like modern atomic theory, and in what ways unlike it? The Sophists Why did Socrates object to the sophists? Socrates What distinguished him from the pre-Socratics? What were his main beliefs? Plato What is his relationship to Socrates? What were his major influences on Western Civilization? Aristotl Democritus (460-370 BC) said tiny atomic particles Socrates, Plato, Aristotle established epistemology, the branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge. This idea influenced Darwin's theory of evolution Socrates: dare to disagree. Aristotle's philosophy was an influence on Edward Deci and Richard Ryan's Self-Determination Theory, before we die and dissolve back into the atomic universe.

Socrates' fourth argument is based upon Plato's theory of forms, which implies that perfect forms, such as the forms of beauty and life do not admit their opposites at all. Thus, the form of beauty as one of perfect forms is self-sufficient and does not contain the form of ugliness at all Socrates was a plebeian, of common stock, which set him at a disadvantage in the aristocratic world of ancient Greece. Socrates was a muscular, thick-set man, with a snub nose and heavy brow. He had served, at some point, in the hoplite infantry, but whatever physical presence he possessed was diminished by his self-depreciating sense of humour.

I have read a lot of websites that suggest Socrates was a fictional character created by Plato (albeit without the citation of any corroborating evidence), but I have also read the opposite (and by opposite here I don't mean that Plato was created by Socrates but rather that Socrates was a living, breathing person) Socrates was taken to trial on accusations of impiety and corrupting the youth of Athens, found guilty, and executed by drinking poison hemlock after refusing attempts to escape from prison. The philosophical concept of atoms and modern scientific Atomic Theory have key differences, especially with the modern scientific consensus that atoms.

Socrates - Windows to the Univers

  1. d was far beyond the available scientific or technological instruments that were required to prove such speculative theories
  2. Locke uses atomic theory in its infancy in order to push his point. I am not saying that Plato's argument is stronger or better than Locke's, however in An Essay concerning Human Understanding , Locke employs concepts that were fairly new at the time of his writing, and therefore was not readily understood by everyone
  3. Plato was a Greek philosopher who is known best as a disciple of Socrates and carries on his work on the atomic theory. Plato introduced the atomic theory in which ideal geometric forms serve as atoms, according to which atoms broke down mathematically into triangles
  4. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, p. 48. 3 f The social contract theory according to Socrates Shahram Arshadnejad© There are two types of contract, the contract between human and nature (later called the original or natural contract, and between humans, later called the social contract.
  5. Democritus (chosen of the people) was an Ancient Greek philosopher born in Abdera, Thrace, Greece. He was an influential pre-Socratic philosopher who formulated an atomic theory for the cosmos. His exact contributions are difficult to disentangle from his mentor Leucippus, as they are often mentioned together in texts

How did Socrates contribute to physics? - Quor

  1. the birth of the atomic theory in greece of the 5th b.c. century One of the most important achievements of ancient Greek thought of the 5th century BC was undoubtedly the genesis of the concept of the atom, this tiny amount of matter that has occupied scientists and philosophers for thousands of years
  2. He was a student of Socrates and later taught Aristotle. He founded the Academy, an academic program which many consider to be the first Western university. Plato wrote many philosophical texts—at least 25. which contributed greatly to our understanding of the structure of the atom and atomic theory. 1911
  3. Truthmaker Theory. Truthmaker theory is the branch of metaphysics that explores the relationships between what is true and what exists. Discussions of truthmakers and truthmaking typically start with the idea that truth depends on being, and not vice versa. For example, if the sentence 'Kangaroos live in Australia' is true, then there are kangaroos living in Australia
  4. Aristotle, on the other hand, disagreed with the Atomic theory developed by Democritus (460—370 BC) in 465BC. He believed that instead of being matter being made of tiny particles (atoms) that they were all fundamentally air, fire, water, and earth. The Atomic theory was actually first proposed by Leucippus (c 5th cent. BC), and was then.

Socrates' virtue. Virtues of Socrates are certainly to be looked at as his own, and as made habitual to him by his own will. To him virtue is perception. Aristotle criticizes (Magna Mor. I. 1) on the quality of virtue expounded by Socrates. He says: Socrates made virtues into a science. But this is impossible, since, though all knowledge has some basis this basis only exists in thought Democritus, who devised the first atomic theory of nature. These were the philosophers whose teaching subsequently influenced Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. What all these thinkers had in common was a thirst for discovering the fundamental principles of existence and the implications they had on human life and behavior

Pre-Socratic philosophy - Wikipedi

  1. Socrates (d. 399 BCE) is one of the major founders of Western philosophy known for his Socratic Method and fascinating personality. We learn about Socrates primarily from his student Plato (d. 347 BCE) and the historian Xenophon (d. 354 BCE). Plato's Dialogues are the most extensive literary sources in which Socrates plays a central role.Xenophon likely presented a more accurate portrayal of.
  2. Democritus was an influential pre-Socratic (before Socrates) philosopher and a pupil of Leucippus, who formulated an atomic theory for the universe, Democritus was not only a philosopher, he was also a scientist and mathematician. His atomic theory was the most well known from ancient times
  3. Democritus was an ancient Greek philosopher, and a central figure in the development of the definition of atoms as well as the atomic theory of the universe. Far before Socrates, Democritus had developed a theory that all elements are made of atoms. This theory helped guide scientists in the 19th century to discover the atomic theory
  4. Was Aristotle atomic theory correct ? - 18480311 bjbeenlit bjbeenlit 10/19/2020 Chemistry High School answered Was Aristotle atomic theory correct ?
  5. Philosophers like Socrates, Seneca, He is most famous for the development of the atomic theory of the universe, or that everything in the universe is comprised of indivisible atoms

Heraclitus (fl. c. 500 B.C.E.) A Greek philosopher of the late 6th century BCE, Heraclitus criticizes his predecessors and contemporaries for their failure to see the unity in experience. He claims to announce an everlasting Word (Logos) according to which all things are one, in some sense. Opposites are necessary for life, but they are unified in a system of balanced exchanges In the fifth century B.C.E., Democritus of Abdera developed the first atomic theory, saying the universe consists both of void and tiny indestructible atoms. He said these atoms are in perpetual motion and collision causing constant change and new compounds. Socrates (470-399 B.C.E. In contrast to Pythagoras, Democritus, the originator of atomic theory, was more concerned with the substance of the universe than with its form. He maintained that the soul is composed of the finest, roundest, most nimble and fiery atoms. Socrates, who left no writings of his own, remains an enigma. Regarded by many as possibly the wisest.

Top 12 Contributions of Socrates - Ancient History List

Atomic Structure Check In 2. Dalton's atomic theory improved earlier atomic theory by a.teaching that all matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms. b.theorizing that all atoms of the same element are identical. c.using experimental methods to establish a scientific theory. d. not relating atoms to chemical change Democritus Facts. Democritus (460 BC to 370 BC) was an ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher who studied under Leucippus in Thrace. His influential work involves his atomic theory of the universe, which led to his being considered the father of modern science. Even before Socrates, Democritus—along with his teacher—had developed a theory.

Aristotle's psychology included a study into the formation of the human mind, as one of the first salvos in the debate between nature and nurture that influences many academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology, education, politics and human geography. Aristotle, unlike Plato, was a believer in nurture, stating that the human mind was. Early Geometry . One of the most important contributions of the Greeks was their development of geometry, culminating in Euclid's Elements, a giant textbook containing all the known geometric theorems at that time (about 300 BC), presented in an elegant logical fashion.. Notice first that the word geometry is made up of geo, meaning the earth, and metry meaning measurement of, in Greek

Democritus - Wikipedi

1. Social and Political Causes 2. Egoistic Hedonism 3. Back to Nature 4. Ataraxy 5. Pleasure Is the Absence of Pain 6. Social Contract 7. Atomic Theory 8. Materialism 9. Theory of Ideas 10. Epicurean Gods 11. Consensus Gentium 12. Causes of Success 13. Complete Antithesis of Paul's Teaching 14. LITERATUR The Greek philosopher Aristotle was known as the first teacher and this collection of Aristotle quotes is full of wisdom that you can learn from. His writings covered many subjects such as physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, and government - and constitute the first comprehensive system of [ Plato is born at Athens, Greece . 427 BCE - 347 BCE. Life of the Greek philosopher Plato . 407 BCE. Plato meets Socrates, abandons aspiration to be playwright. 403 BCE. Plato turns away from politics toward philosophy . 399 BCE. Trial and death of the philosopher Socrates, who taught in the court of the Agora Aristotle's Influence on Alchemy The science of alchemy was built around the five Ancient Greek elements. Alchemists believed a small amount of Aristotle's quintessence had drifted down to Earth and if they could harness its properties they could cure diseases with it. Some came to identify it with the Philosopher's Stone, which could be used to turn other metals into gold and grant.

Embers of Advanced Civilization in Bronze Age GreecePPT - Philosophers and Writers of the Greek Golden AgeScientists Timeline | Timetoast timelines

Aristotle's Contribution to Science, Education, and Physics. Aristotle thought that Nature could best be understood by observation and reason - and that all knowledge should be open to examination and subject to reason. Science Education has shown a renewed interest in Aristotle's works. (1) Today, theories in science are often based on. the atomic theory of Democritus lost out in antiquity [to Aristotle's compositional view] because its materialism left no room for the spiritual. The so-called elements of this story were not the material ones of today, but metaphysical causes of the properties of the various bodies experienced. [Siegfried, 2002, pp. 2-3 He truly earns the honor of being called the First Teacher. To delve further into the details of his achievements, here is a list of the top 10 contributions of Aristotle: Contents hide. 1. Invented the Logic of the Categorical Syllogism. 2. Classification of Living Beings Socrates. Socrates was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher known as one of the founders of Western philosophy. He is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Learn more about Socrates Dalton's atomic theory improved earlier atomic theory by teaching that all matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms. theorizing that all atoms of the same element are identical. using experimental methods to establish a scientific theory. not relating atoms to chemical change